In the Odyssey – Amphimedon, What Motivates Odysseus to Dress as a Beggar?


Homer’s epic poem, “The Odyssey,” is a narrative rich with intrigue, adventure, and strategic thinking. One of the most captivating episodes in the epic unfolds when Odysseus, the cunning hero, decides to assume the disguise of a beggar upon his return to Ithaca. This strategic choice, which takes place in Book 17, is a turning point in the story. In this article, we will delve into the motives and strategy behind Odysseus’ decision to masquerade as a beggar in “The Odyssey.”

The Enigmatic Homecoming

Odysseus’ long and arduous journey home from the Trojan War brings him to the shores of Ithaca, his homeland. However, the hero doesn’t receive the welcome he expected. His palace is overrun by suitors vying for the hand of his wife, Penelope, and consuming his wealth. Odysseus must navigate this treacherous situation with caution.

Motives for Adopting the Guise of a Beggar

Several factors motivate Odysseus to embrace the disguise of a beggar as he returns to Ithaca:

  1. Assessment of the Palace: Odysseus has been away from Ithaca for twenty years, during which time his palace has been infiltrated by the suitors. Dressing as a beggar allows him to observe the palace’s layout, the behavior of the suitors, and the loyalty of those who remain faithful to him, all without revealing his true identity prematurely.
  2. Secrecy and Concealment: By adopting the humble attire of a beggar, Odysseus keeps his true status and intentions hidden from the suitors. This secrecy is vital to his overarching plan of retaking his kingdom and seeking revenge against those who have wronged him.
  3. Testing Loyalties: The beggar disguise enables Odysseus to test the character and loyalty of those around him, particularly the suitors. He can gauge how they treat him when he appears vulnerable and assess who among the palace staff and servants is still loyal to his cause.
  4. Gathering Intelligence: Odysseus, in the guise of a beggar, can move freely about the palace, eavesdrop on conversations, and gather crucial information about the suitors’ plans and intrigues. This intelligence becomes invaluable in plotting his eventual return to power.

The Strategy Underlying the Disguise

Odysseus’ decision to pose as a beggar is not merely an act of desperation; it is a calculated strategy. It allows him to bide his time, assess the evolving situation, and prepare for the moment when he can unveil his true identity and confront the suitors. His disguise adds an element of surprise, catching the suitors off guard when he ultimately returns to claim his kingdom.


In “The Odyssey,” Odysseus’ choice to adopt the persona of a beggar is not just a matter of necessity; it is a brilliantly calculated strategy. It allows him to navigate the complex and perilous conditions in Ithaca while remaining incognito to those who have wronged him. This artful ruse showcases Odysseus’ intelligence, guile, and capacity to adapt to shifting circumstances. It lays the groundwork for the epic’s climactic moment, where the hero will finally unveil himself and seize his rightful place as the king of Ithaca.